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Vídeos LGP e Audioguias

It was a long journey that led to the implementation of this Project, which would unfold into multiple tasks and programs. All the work started with a detailed and thorough museum planning.The museological plan was then integrated with the museographic plan, which began to shape the space that is currently the Town Museum of the Batalha Community. Finally, in close interaction with the whole team, strategies have been established to make this Museum accessible to everyone. fechar
The Museum plans
Foto: The Museum plans
In the museum, which has two floors, we have developed 6 theme fields distributed over various areas. In the GROUND FLOOR we’ll show you the origins. In area 2, you will find the geological and paleontological period on this territory and information about the first inhabitants of the Region. In area 3, you will see the prehistoric periods up until the Iron Age. In area 4, you will meet Collipo and the period of Roman domination and, taking a leap in time, the Medieval Age that preceded the history of Batalha. On the FIRST FLOOR you will find 4 very distinct spaces: At area number 5, in the centre, it’s located the space Time and Memory, which tells the history of Batalha since the construction of the Monastery and the foundation of the village until the present day. In area number 6, we´re making a brief passage through biodiversity and introducing the Batalha Municipality of today using a multimedia centre. In area number 7, called "Projects Nest", you can find temporary exhibitions created by the initiative of the community and held in collaboration with this Museum. In the area marked with number 8, it’s the laboratory for future memory. In there you’ll find consultation spots for those who wish to deepen their knowledge of this Municipality. fechar
This area takes us back to the history of the development of the area and life in the region from 250 million years ago up to the 14th century. With the Battle of Aljubarrota and the promise made by King João I to build a large church, the Batalha of today was born. This exhibition is divided into the following sections: • The geology and palaeontology of the area • The first human beings in Batalha • From the Palaeolithic to the Roman invasion • From Collippo to the Monastery fechar
The time bar
We begin our journey becoming aware - by the time bar - of how recent our history is when compared to the scale of the Universe. What is told in this Museum is focused only between the last two milestones of this time bar. On this scale, the fine white dividing lines that separate each event measure 1.17mm and represent 4 million years; more or less the time that separates us from our first ancestors. Universe, galaxies... Worlds outside our planet... They’re represented here by a meteorite – a reminder of how much there is beyond Earth. fechar
Here there was sea
The rocks of the territory which the municipality of Batalha is part of tell us, by means of geological and paleontological records, a long story that takes us back more than 200 million years. In the first part of this showcase you will feel the presence of the sea in the FOSSILS found on the rocks that mark the landscape of the mountains. The limestones creating them date mainly from the Middle Jurassic and would have been formed in coastal or open sea marine environments. From this period, there’s also in this region evidence of dinosaurs of worldwide relevance, such as in the "Pedreira do Galinha", where we find extensive trails of exceptionally well preserved sauropod footprints. The mountains have also shaped the lives of the populations that have settled here over time. They have important resources, such as lignite, used as fuel; rock salt, as a preservative; or the limestone that was used for the construction of the Monastery. fechar
Oysters on the mountain – piece to touch
This limestone block with oyster and sponge fossils, found in the S. Mamede mountain, is about 170 million years old and would have been formed in the Middle Jurassic. At that time, much of the territory was submerged by shallow and warm sea waters. Later, tectonic movements formed the plateau, taking the fossils and sediments that were previously deposited in those waters to the top of the mountain. fechar
Between sea and land
In contrast to the mountains, west of the São Mamede Plateau, we find an area of smooth reliefs where the water lines have dug embedded valleys. The most important one is the Lena Valley, where the rocks, especially clayey, marly and sandy rocks, are easily destroyed by erosion. In this part of the showcase, we’re already in the Upper Jurassic and in coastal marine environments, or now even terrestrial, as shown by the abundant fossils of freshwater molluscs, crocodiles, fish, turtles and dinosaurs. fechar
The stegossaurus
In Batalha, the most complete fossils of dinosaurs belonging to a STEGOSSAURUS were found. Their presence in the region, until now only known in North America, strengthened the hypothesis of the existence of an ancient link between the two continents, which would have been closer then. fechar
The upper Jurassic - pieces to touch
Descrição pormenorizada - Foto: The upper Jurassic - pieces to touch
These three pieces are displayed alongside the area of the MCCB dedicated to the Upper Jurassic period and the coastal marine environments evidenced by the abundant fossils of freshwater molluscs, crocodiles, fish, turtles, and dinosaurs.
These are three distinct fossils:
1. Dinosaur tail vertebra
2. Internal mould of a gastropod
3. Part of a gymnosperm stem fechar
These three pieces (a dinosaur vertebra; an inner mould of a conch; a stem of gymnosperms) are exhibited next to the area that the Museum dedicates to the Upper Jurassic period and to the coastal marine environments evidenced by the abundant fossils of freshwater molluscs, crocodiles, fish, turtles and dinosaurs. fechar
Estremadura Limestone Massif and the Karst
Compression tectonic movements caused the lifting of the layers deposited at the bottom of the Lusitanian Basin. The block elevated currently constitutes the Estremadura Limestone Massif. Thus, the sediments formed at the bottom of the sea are today rocks at the top of the Sierras. And the fossils found in them are nothing more than the remains of ancient marine organisms. Limestone like the ones from the Sierras of the Batalha region, when subjected to rain and wind, dissolve, forming a set of natural shapes called "karst". Also the watercourses, when dissolving the limestone from its bed, can infiltrate the rocks becoming subterranean rivers. Sometimes, they may resurface, such as River Lena source or the waterfalls of Buraco Roto in Reguengo do Fetal. fechar
The ability to use Nature elements around them to ease their tasks marked the beginning of the differentiation of the human being from the other animals. But from the first experiences of the Australopithecus 4 million years ago to the achievements of the Homo sapiens, it took a long journey, marked by advances and retreats, to reach the time to conquer the environment around him. fechar
3 replicas of skulls
The ability to use Nature elements around them to ease their tasks marked the beginning of the differentiation of the human being from the other animals. But from the first experiences of the Australopithecus 4 million years ago to the achievements of the Homo sapiens, it took a long journey, marked by advances and retreats, to reach the time to conquer the environment around him. In this museum, there are 3 replicas of skulls of 3 distinct phases: Australopithecus aphaeresis, which lived between 4 and 3.2 million years, was already a bipedal pre-hominid. It lived in groups and had an omnivorous diet. The shape of the skull reveals strong jaws and a reduced cranial capacity. It would have a capacity of about 400cm3. Homo erectus appeared in Africa 1.5 million years ago. It already had a more upright posture and its cranial vault had increased to approximately 900 cm3. Homo neanderthalensis, which inhabited the earth in a period ranging from 200,000 to 45,000 years, had a sturdy body structure and low height, but a large cranial capacity of 1400cm3. It occupied a vast region of Europe, including Portugal and this region. It coexisted with modern man until its sudden extinction. fechar
The first communities of hunters and gatherers
The human occupation in this region dates back to 300,000 years and the main testimonies are the chipped stones found in sand and gravel deposited by Lena River. They are thought to have been made by a hominid older than Neanderthal, eventually a form close to Homo erectus. Traces of the first communities were found in the areas of Jardoeira and Casal de Azemel. The Jardoeira station, about 300,000 years old, is characterized by artefacts corresponding to a material culture still very raw. In Casal de Azemel, about 200,000 years old, uniface and biface stone tools have been found, which shows a more elaborate culture, fruit of a second migratory flow of these communities. fechar
The First Agro-pastoral Communities
As in other regions of the Estremadura Limestone Massif, the Batalha region has several natural caves that would have been used for the burial deposits of the agro-pastoral communities that lived here. In the valley of Pia da Ovelha, the necropolises of Buraco dos Ossos, Buraco Roto and Forneco da Moira were found. There were also found incineration urns dating back to 2000 before Christ. In the MCCB some vestiges of these communities can be seen, namely some funerary vases and a cinerary urn with a lid decorated with the figure of a horse. fechar
Descrição pormenorizada - Foto: COLLIPO AND ROMAN DOMMINATION
Colour photograph of the inside of the MCCB. A white marble figure of a Roman magistrate stands on a white pedestal in the centre of this photo, lit from above. In the background, two display cases can be seen, holding collections of items from Collippo. fechar
It was Rome that introduced the first political and administrative structures into Lusitanian territory in an organised manner. The Roman city of Collipo represents for Batalha a first space of evolution in the construction of the comcept of citizenship and law. The civitas of Collipo had been born on the Iron Age Turdetani settlement, conquered by the Romans. Rome granted it the status of a municipality around A.D. 70, which gave the indigenous inhabitants the right to Roman citizenship, with the privileges inherent to that status. Its excellent geo-strategic conditions turned it into the most prosperous city in the region, benefiting from the important coastal road connecting Olisipo to Conimbriga. fechar
Roman Tombstone – Piece to touch
This fragment of cippus or gravestone, made of marbled limestone from the region, was found in Forneiros, in 1947, among the debris of a haystack. In Roman letters, always capital letters, angular and harmoniously proportional, we can still distinguish some of the words carved... in the Latin language of that time, the small remnant reveals: "... seventy years old. Consecrated to the Manes gods". In Roman times, as it is today, tombstones were made with written messages dedicated to the deceased loved ones. fechar
Life and Death of Collipo
Collipo economic and social prosperity, which resulted from a strong political organisation and the entrepreneurial action of the dominant families, was reflected in the public structures, such as the temple, the spas or the public square, which they called a forum. The archaeological campaigns carried out since 1963 would reveal important findings that allowed us to reconstruct aspects of the buildings of this Roman city and led us to identify several architectural structures and a large quantity of remains of domestic and construction ceramics, as well as glass. Later, the ruralisation of the Roman society, the decadence of the urban centre and the invasions of barbarian people caused the progressive disappearance of Collipo between the 4th and 6th centuries. fechar
Descrição pormenorizada - Foto: ONE BATTLE AND ONE CHURCH
Sepia drawing of the reconstruction of the altar of the Church of Santa Maria-a-Velha (Saint Mary Aldermary). It comprises two altars, which stand on either side of an arched doorway. A large altar with a triangular pediment supported by four columns stands in the centre, towards the back. The three altars lie empty. fechar
The Church of Santa Maria-a-Velha (Saint Mary Aldermary) was the first mother church of Batalha, because at the end of the XIV century, after the victory of King John I and his army in Aljubarrota, with the King's vote in favour of the construction of the Monastery in honour of Santa Maria da Vitória and the beginning of the construction, the masters builders for the construction of the Monastery, the workers and a whole group of people connected to this great project began to arrive at that place, and there was the need to build a place of worship [for] the people who were already beginning to settle there, so as to have their own place for masses, especially on Sundays. The stones still preserved, although of a later construction, remember us of its total disappearance in 1965, when the old Batalha village was destroyed and a new urbanization program changed the image of the monumental complex forever. Located north-northeast of the monastery, it had two rectangular sections and a single nave. Inside, it had a main altar with a stone retable containing a niche that housed the image of Our Lady of Victory. Some of the main masters of the monastery were buried there, namely Huguet, Guilherme and Boytac. fechar
The huge 2 by 2 metres painting, dated from 2009, is the result of a commission from this Museum to the painter Mário Rita to represent "Aljubarrota" by means of artistic expression. This piece, with an expressionist and gestural basis, is part of the new figures of the late 20th century, a trend that is manifested by the energy that emanates from it. In a dialogue simultaneously tense and harmonious, the charcoal strokes and the acrylic paint brushstrokes engage in a dialogue highlighting each other. If, at certain moments, the line asked for colour; at others, it was the colour that suggested a new stroke should be drawn. These dialectic and interaction offer us a story that is merely suggested. fechar
Lace-like Stone – Piece to Touch
This fragment of a balcony from the Monastery, reproduced by the Students of the School of Arts and Crafts of Batalha, is carved from the same limestone from which the monument is made. The stone, extracted from the soils of this region, has a smooth texture and is easy to work. The decoration on this fragment creates four volutes, which look like drops or tears, fitted together to form a rosette... and the stone comes to life and movement. The final effect is a delicate lace-like work, with soft tones and curves, harmonious to the eye and soft to the touch. The delicacy of the decoration of the Batalha Monastery captivates those who visit it, highlighting even more the greatness of its architecture, which reveals the traces of different times and different masters. fechar
Royal Promise Accomplished
A valley near the Batalha Real field, abundant in water for the foundations and near good quarries, was the place chosen to build a church that would perpetuate the memory and splendour of the victory of Aljubarrota and the new dynasty. The construction of the monastery had several phases and involved several generations of kings. The magnitude of the work demanded the presence of many national and foreign artists, who, during the 15th and 16th centuries, marked the various stages of its construction with their style. It is a colossal set of dimensions, the church alone is 88 metres long by 40 metres wide and 29 metres high in the central nave, with its steeple more than 43 metres. fechar
To be born and to live in the shadow of the Monastery created in this land bonds of strong social dependence on the Church and it was under the guidance of the Dominican order, in charge of the convent, that Batalha community took its first steps. The religious communities of this time were powerful structures with the power to manage and guide society and shared with the crown fundamental tasks of organization, education and health, both in the countryside and in the incipient cities. fechar
System of Weights and Measures – Piece to Touch
The institutionalisation as a small town gave Batalha attributes of governance in the region, among them the right and obligation to control trade. A SYSTEM OF WEIGHTS AND MEASURES was implemented by King Manuel, as an instrument of unification, and the Manueline Ordinances of 1499 established its various applications, defining multiples and submultiples of the main units. Arranged in a systematic and orderly way, inside a cylindrical box also made out of bronze, there are several measuring cups that fit perfectly inside each other, each one with a certain capacity and weight. The box that holds the cups has several interesting details. The lid is held in place by strong hinges connected to a structure that runs through the lid and ends in a lock that is shaped as the head of an animal. The strong and worked handle fits into two armillary spheres - the symbol of King Manuel I. In front of these, in relief, there are two coats of arms where the quincunx of the national company stands out. fechar
The decline of the construction work at the convent marked the beginning of a long period of decadence and forgetfulness of the monastery and its small town, which would last for almost two centuries. The lost memory of the small town and convent was recovered by the drawings, engravings and descriptions of official and visitor reporters as they passed by the region. In the virtual book you’ll find some examples of these works and of PAGES OF THE BOOKS of that time displayed here. The Napoleonic invasions at the beginning of the 19th century left a trail of death and destruction, marks which can still be seen in the Monastery. Many lives were destroyed and monuments dilapidated. Also the extinction of religious orders dictated by the liberal government in 1834 brought bad days for the monastery and the region. It will take the arrival of the 1940s for Batalha to slowly begin its recovery. fechar
Lost lives – Piece to Touch
The 18th century was a century of profound contrasts in which the arrival of the Enlightenment and the Pombaline political and social innovations contrasted with the royal absolutism, the meshes of the Inquisition and the secular backwardness of Portuguese society. This tombstone is a tribute to the many lives lost in these decades in Portugal, the result of the 1755 earthquake and the misery caused by the Napoleonic wars, in which the population was always an involuntary victim. The difficult times of that period are mirrored in the simplicity of this stone in shades of pearl white. Here will be about 2/3 of the original stone. It reads part of the message: "Grave of M... Couto... Rodo... and his heirs..." In addition to the simple line letters, reminding the ancient Roman inscriptions, there is also the frame around the top, the left side of the headstone and the small arabesque in the lower right corner. fechar
In the nineteenth century, the population of Batalha has had a fight fought and won in defense of its Municipality. It had been extinguished in 1836, in a period of great degradation of the monastery, having even been transferred the seat of the parish to the convent. However, it was restored one year later, in 1837, and, for more than 50 years, the works of recovery of the monastery and the beginning of mining activity boosted the municipal activity. But its extinction and integration in the Municipality of Leiria, again in 1895, would cause a strong reaction from the community, which presented a petition to King Charles in 1897. The definitive restoration would take place by royal decree on January 13, 1898. fechar
Republic and education in Portugal
Descrição pormenorizada - Foto: Republic and education in Portugal
Coloured image of six children’s books. The bottom two are positioned vertically and the other four horizontally. fechar
The 20th century gave Portugal a new system of governance: the Republic. The restructuring of public education was one of its priorities, which included the reorganisation of primary school and the renewal of teacher training. Like the other Portuguese regions, Batalha would benefit from the expansion of Education for all. The history of teaching in Batalha has its origin in the Convent of Santa Maria da Vitória which was, during the 15th century, a place of study and prayer, guided by the Dominican Order. The theologian and philosopher Friar Bartolomeu extended teaching to the university degree, transforming the convent into a "Studium", until the expulsion of the religious orders in 1834. In the 19th century, António Cândido da Encarnação financed the construction of the first school in Batalha at a time when public education became compulsory for the lower classes. With the dictatorship of the “New State” (Estado Novo), in the 20th century, the Portuguese educational system evolved significantly, being marked by the doctrine of the dictatorial regime. In Batalha region, philanthropy supported school activity. In 1954, António Oliveira Zuquet gave up the facilities to install a school canteen. “Comendador” Pedro Monteiro Pereira Queiroz, living in Brazil, supported the canteen's works and sent money to feed and buy clothes and shoes for the poorest children. The April 1974 revolution changed Education profoundly. The student, guided by the teacher, became the centre of the instructional attitude, having at his disposal new means of information and communication. The school provides, from then on, the construction of knowledge in an active and intervening way, contributing to an education of democratic citizenship, with the support of increasingly evolved technologies. fechar
Throughout the 20th century, the simplification of the writing mechanisms, the expansion of literature and of the national and local press and the development of the media were the essential steps that preceded the unstoppable world of nowadays communication.Objects only 100 years old – such as those found here and that are considered today as primitive – were the starting point and the seed for the sophisticated and ultra fast current means of information and contact. Computers or the Internet, which so well characterise the beginning of the 21st century, are heirs to these first mass media, which represented significant advances in the last century. With them and as a result of the LABORATORY FOR FUTURE MEMORY work and the COMMUNITY ACTIVITIES programs, the times that follow are being prepared, increasing knowledge, promoting interculturality and discovering new values in the community. fechar
Book binding iron press
This binding press is made of cast iron, a material that replaces the wooden presses. Changing the material has resulted in greater efficiency in the binding system. The piece was used in the City Hall of Batalha.Above one support is a cast iron press used in the first half of the 20th century for book binding. The heavy and sturdy look reinforces its function. By turning the handle, the screw-shaped shaft brings the press up or down. The book sheets were placed between the base and the lowering press, squeezing the paper, so that they could be sewn together and take shape. fechar
Fulfilling its mission of permanent research and its vocation of cultural sharing, the MCCB develops participatory research programs that are the result of proposals from the population or from social or cultural groups within the community. In this space, called "Projects Nest", you can find temporary exhibitions created by the initiative of the community and held in collaboration with this Museum. We’ve already held exhibitions here related to themes such as Teaching in Batalha or Exploration of Coal Mines in this region. fechar
Batalha Coal Mines
The exhibition 100 YEARS OF COAL: Minas da Batalha 1854 – 1954 is dedicated toan activity that opened a new period of economic dynamism for Batalha. As a result of a long research work with the community, this exhibition aims to honer the men and women who, over the years, have contributed with their hard work to regional development. The extraction of coal at different points in the mountains and the construction of a railway for its transport was a decisive milestone in the progress of this region. Among the 44 concessions demarcated, Alcanadas and Chão Preto were the two most important poles of a mining operation, which lasted for a century in Batalha. From the identification of different types of coal, through the daily lives of miners, to the industrial heyday and subsequent decay, we have covered a hundred years of an activity that has strongly marked our community. fechar
Now at the end of this visit to the MCCB, the words of the museologist Ana Mercedes Stoffel as a kind of summary: "This is the story that the people of Batalha would want told. With them, we’ve built a database that has more than 200 or 300 different events that were voted and 30 or 40 fundamental ones selected; and these are the ones that are present in this history of the Museum. With them, we’ve built the history, and after having built the history, we’ve tried to find the objects of the Town Hall, the Museum and the people from the community, which are still theirs but are in the Museum, to illustrate the history of this territory to the people visiting and to the community itself. Most of the pieces found in this museum do not belong to the Museum. They belong to the people who built the museum with it and probably, sooner or later, they will take those pieces home and other pieces will come. This implies that many more people, every day, get involved and will continue to get involved in the museum and this is what brings it to life... Getting to know history better through the history told by the people becomes a much more solid construction of the future than just mere information." fechar
The Winged Victory
This sculpture of about 80cm, with a woman’s face, comes from Collipo. Of rare sculptural beauty, it is of particular value because it is a dateable piece, thanks to the hair that frames the face, in the shape of a braid, contouring the forehead of the figure. With its head raised, firm bust and delicate features that not even time could erase, Winged Victory, in its marble existence, reminds us of a PROW MASCARON of a ship, with its eyes set further beyond. This piece thus synthesizes the spirit of this Museum and of all those who contribute to it with generosity, dedication and knowledge. fechar
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